Year 2012

  • Thoumrungroje, A. (2012), “Alternative Modes of Export Entry for SMEs from Emerging Economies,” Journal of International Management Studies, 12 (4), 102-109.
    Abstract:
    The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the specific issue of modes of export entry of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that originate from emerging economies. Four theoretical frameworks on the process of internationalization (i.e. FDI, stage models, network perspective, and organizational capability perspective) are reviewed with respect to the internationalization of SMEs. Direct and indirect exporting are compared based on transaction cost analysis (TCA) and the network perspective. Problems arising from the use of extant independent export intermediaries are highlighted with a recommended remedy. After analyzing the situation and the nature of SMEs from the emerging economies, propositions on alternative modes of export entry for such firms are postulated.
  • Racela, O. C. & Thoumrungroje, A. (2012), “The Perceived Ethicality and Efficacy of Fear Appeals: The Warning Labels in Thailand,” Journal of International Business and Economics, 12 (4), 106-113.
    Abstract:
    Despite the noted persuasive effects of fear appeals in public health campaigns, there are criticisms of the ethicality of such appeals because they may create unnecessary concerns among audiences. This study examines the perceived ethicality of strong and mild fear appeals and their effect on attitude toward the package, attitude toward the product, and intention to change behavior in the context of an anti-smoking campaign launched in Thailand. A between-subjects experimental design involving 205 Thai smokers was implemented to measure the effects of "strong" and "mild" graphic warning labels (GWL). Results indicate that the "strong" fear appeal is considered unethical, yet, effective in creating unfavorable attitudes toward the cigarette package and toward cigarettes. Interestingly, although the strong fear appeal prompted the highest intention to quit smoking, as compared to that stimulated by the mild fear appeal, intention to quit smoking is at a low absolute level.
  • Racela, O. C. & Thoumrungroje, A. (2012), “Foreign-Branding, Product Evaluations, and Brand Image: An Experiment on Brand Pronunciation in Thailand,” Journal of International Business and Economics, 12 (5), 84-90.
    Abstract:
    Despite the noted persuasive effects of fear appeals in public health campaigns, there are criticisms of the ethicality of such appeals because they may create unnecessary concerns among audiences. This study examines the perceived ethicality of strong and mild fear appeals and their effect on attitude toward the package, attitude toward the product, and intention to change behavior in the context of an antismoking campaign launched in Thailand. A between-subjects experimental design involving 205 Thai smokers was implemented to measure the effects of "strong" and "mild" graphic warning labels (GWL). Results indicate that the "strong" fear appeal is considered unethical, yet, effective in creating unfavorable attitudes toward the cigarette package and toward cigarettes. Interestingly, although the strong fear appeal prompted the highest intention to quit smoking, as compared to that stimulated by the mild fear appeal, intention to quit smoking is at a low absolute level.
  • Thoumrungroje, A. (2012), “A Cross-Vergence of Consumer Preferences: An Empirical Study of Ethnic Subgroups in Thailand,” Journal of International Business Research and Practice, 6, 37-48.
    Abstract:
    Building on Bandura’s (2002) social cognitive theory and Phinney’s (1993) three-stage model of ethnic formation, this study explores the trends towards cross-vergence of consumers’ demand in the globalization era. The results from an exploratory factor analysis aiming to identify the underlying benefits that consumers of three different ethnic subgroups in Thailand have towards a non-ethnic consumer product confirms the cross-vergence thesis. Thus, both sociology and psychology literature complements each other in explaining both the convergence and divergence in consumers’ preferences nowadays. Finally, this paper advocates that an in-depth understanding of cultural dynamics is crucial for scholars to advance theories as well as for practitioners to properly address consumers’ needs.
  • Racela, O. C. & Thoumrungroje, A. (2012), “International Market Expansion of ‘Jintan Nude’ in Thailand,” Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, 2 (4), 1-17.
    Case Overview:
    Thai Jintan Company Limited (Thai Jintan) is a medium-sized importer, distributor, and marketer of premium confectionery and health care products in Thailand with the exclusive distribution arrangements of Morishita Jintan Company Limited (Morishita), one of Japan's oldest companies and a leader in the Japanese probiotic and confectionery industry. The case takes place in August 2009, approximately 18 months after Thai Jintan implemented its market launch of Morishita's technologically advanced breath and belly mint under the brand name of Jintan Nude. With a limited promotional budget of 8 million baht (161,128) coupled with Thailand's regulatory environment for the marketing of food and drugs, Thai Jintan, a newcomer to the breath mint market, was faced with having to devise a resourceful marketing and promotional campaign. Thai Jintan management was confronted with assessing its past marketing plan and deciding on what to do to achieve its ambitious goal of capturing a 20 percent market share of the growing mint/menthol candy confectionery segment in Thailand.
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