Year 2013

  • Thoumrungroje, A. (2013), “Understanding of ASEAN Economic Community (AEC): Scale Development and Validation across Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam,” International Conference on Interdisciplinary Research and Development in ASEAN Proceedings, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    This study develops and validates a new scale to explore the understanding of ASEAN economic community (AEC) among citizens of Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam, three ASEAN member nations with contrasting levels of economic development and histories. Data were collected via self-administered questionnaires in three official languages (English, Thai and Vietnamese). The final usable samples include 857 Singaporeans, 2,275 Thais, and 265 Vietnamese. The findings reveal both similarities and differences in the way people from these three nations understand AEC. From an initial pool of 14 items, the results from exploratory factor analysis suggested the elimination of four items that were not similarly perceived by people of these national groups. The remaining ten items that were consistently loaded into two similar factors across the three nationals revealed two underlying concepts. The first concept consists of five items, which reflect ‘Regional Competitive Integration’ (RCI), and the second concept comprises a group of five items indicating ‘Regional Economic Cooperation’ (REC). To assess scale reliability, validity, and measurement equivalence of these two concepts, a multiple group confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. The results show that both five-item scales of RCI and REC are reliable and valid as well as possess factorial equivalence or metric invariance. Therefore, future research can incorporate these two concepts into study related to the understanding of regional economic integration by adopting these newly developed scales and perform cross-cultural comparisons.
  • Waranantakul, W. & Thoumrungroje, A. (2013), “Determinants of International Alliance Stability,” International Conference on Interdisciplinary Research and Development in ASEAN Proceedings, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Alliance stability is viewed as a vital factor for alliance survival, development, and evolution. It creates the conditions for performance enhancement alliance success. The clear understanding of alliance stability is still needed. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to explore the relationships among goal interdependence, resource complementarity, inter-organizational learning, relational capability, and international alliance stability. We propose that cooperative goal interdependence, high resource complementarity, cooperative inter-organizational learning, and high relational capability are associated with the stability of international alliance. Along with the conceptual model, a number of propositions are developed to facilitate future empirical testing. Moreover, some key managerial implications are also suggested.
  • Thoumrungroje, A. (2013), “The Influence of Social Media Intensity EWOM on Conspicuous Consumption,” The 2nd International Conference on Strategic Innovative Marketing, Prague, Czech Republic.
    An increasing number of people all around the globe are spending tremendous amounts of time in the cyber world on activities such as connecting with one another and searching for information. It is undeniable that social media, such as social networking sites (e.g. Facebook), microblogging sites (e.g. Twitter), photosharing sites (e.g. Instagram), and video sharing sites (e.g. Youtube) play a considerable role in peoples’ daily lives—changing the way people carry out their routines. This widespread consumption of social media has made an impact on the way marketers design their marketing activities, particularly in the promotion and distribution of their products. Grounded in sociology and marketing literature, this paper proposes a model linking the intensity of social media use with consumers’ reliance on electronic word of mouth (EWOM) and their consumption of conspicuous products. Data were collected from Thai consumers that yielded a final usable sample size of 1,142. The results from structural equation modeling reveal both direct and indirect influences (i.e., via EWOM) of social media intensity on conspicuous consumption. Hence, social media and EWOM are effective tools to entice demand for conspicuous products. In sum, this paper extends social network analysis to investigate evolving consumer behaviour, and also suggests innovative marketing tools that enable firms to capitalize on advanced communication technologies and to adapt to the new virtual life style.
  • Thoumrungroje, A. & Racela, O. C. (2013), “The Contingent Role of Customer Orientation and Entrepreneurial Orientation on Product Innovation and Performance,” Journal of Strategic Marketing, 21 (2), 140-159.
    This paper synthesizes marketing and entrepreneurship literature and postulates the complementary nature of a customer orientation with that of an entrepreneurial orientation, then explores their relationships with product innovation and performance. A path analysis was used to test the hypotheses based on data collected from a sample of 159 strategic business units in 15 different industries. The results show that an entrepreneurial orientation does not have a relationship with product innovation unless it is coupled with the complementary effect of a customer orientation. This study also indicates that product innovation mediates this complementary effect on new product and firm performance. In addition, a customer orientation is found to exert a direct positive effect on both new product and firm performances. Although most hypotheses were supported, two out of five were not. As such, the findings present valuable practical insights as well as interesting contributions to the theoretical advancements in marketing and entrepreneurship.
  • Thoumrungroje, A. & Racela, O. C. (2013), “Thai Beverage Public Company Limited: Thailand Leader, Global Challenger ,” Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, 3(2), 1-20.
    Case Overview:
    Thai Beverage Public Company Limited (ThaiBev) was Thailand's largest beverage company and was among Asia's major alcoholic beverage companies. The case situation takes place during the latter part of August 2010, two years after the public announcement of ThaiBev's ambitious intentions to become a comprehensive and integrated beverage company and after having recently re-launched its acquired Wrangyer energy brand, a move signaling ThaiBev's strong commitment to its non-alcoholic beverages. The case describes the beverage industries at the global, regional, and country level and discusses ThaiBev's range of businesses. Marut Buranasetkul, Senior Vice President of Corporate Service and Deputy Managing Director of Thai Beverage Marketing, the sales and marketing arm of ThaiBev, must decide on the direction for ThaiBev to pursue to bring ThaiBev's non-alcoholic beverages to account for at least 10 percent of the company's total revenue. This case presents a number of important strategic topics, particularly in discussing industry structure and competition, as well as diversification issues encountered by a firm that was attempting to create a greater balance between the revenue contributions from its market leading dominant businesses and that of its younger and newer business lines.
  • Podok, T. & Thoumrungroje, A. (2013), “A Comparative Study of Understanding of ASEAN Economic Community between Singaporeans and Thais,” Journal of International Business & Economics, 13 (2), 69-76.
    This study explores and compares the understanding of economic community between citizens of Thailand and Singapore with a specific focus on the upcoming ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). A new scale comprising of the elements that constitute AEC was developed. Survey data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires, which yielded the final usable samples of 2,275 Thais and 857 Singaporeans. Using exploratory factor analysis via orthogonal rotation, we found two common underlying factors--each of which consists of five items that possess 'same form equivalence', 'factorial similarities' or 'configural invariance' across two national samples. We later labeled the two emerging factors as 1) Regional Competitive Integration ('RCI'), and 2) Regional Economic Cooperation ('REC'). Future research can further validate these new scales across different cultural settings and adopt these new constructs for their studies.
  • Phumpradab, P. & Thoumrungroje, A. (2013), “An Exploratory Study of Consumers’ Attitudes towards ASEAN Economic Integration,” International Journal of Business Research, 13 (2), 35-40.
    This research explores and compares the attitudes towards ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) between Thai and Singaporean citizens. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect survey data of which 1,462 Thai and 647 Singaporean respondents are usable in this study. The result shows that there is a significant difference in the level of attitudes in supporting AEC between Thais and Singaporeans. By using Univariate ANOVA, we found that age, education, news consumption frequency and most watched TV program explain the differences in the level of attitudes towards AEC among Singaporeans.

Year 2012

  • Thoumrungroje, A. (2012), “Alternative Modes of Export Entry for SMEs from Emerging Economies,” Journal of International Management Studies, 12 (4), 102-109.
    The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the specific issue of modes of export entry of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that originate from emerging economies. Four theoretical frameworks on the process of internationalization (i.e. FDI, stage models, network perspective, and organizational capability perspective) are reviewed with respect to the internationalization of SMEs. Direct and indirect exporting are compared based on transaction cost analysis (TCA) and the network perspective. Problems arising from the use of extant independent export intermediaries are highlighted with a recommended remedy. After analyzing the situation and the nature of SMEs from the emerging economies, propositions on alternative modes of export entry for such firms are postulated.
  • Racela, O. C. & Thoumrungroje, A. (2012), “The Perceived Ethicality and Efficacy of Fear Appeals: The Warning Labels in Thailand,” Journal of International Business and Economics, 12 (4), 106-113.
    Despite the noted persuasive effects of fear appeals in public health campaigns, there are criticisms of the ethicality of such appeals because they may create unnecessary concerns among audiences. This study examines the perceived ethicality of strong and mild fear appeals and their effect on attitude toward the package, attitude toward the product, and intention to change behavior in the context of an anti-smoking campaign launched in Thailand. A between-subjects experimental design involving 205 Thai smokers was implemented to measure the effects of "strong" and "mild" graphic warning labels (GWL). Results indicate that the "strong" fear appeal is considered unethical, yet, effective in creating unfavorable attitudes toward the cigarette package and toward cigarettes. Interestingly, although the strong fear appeal prompted the highest intention to quit smoking, as compared to that stimulated by the mild fear appeal, intention to quit smoking is at a low absolute level.
  • Racela, O. C. & Thoumrungroje, A. (2012), “Foreign-Branding, Product Evaluations, and Brand Image: An Experiment on Brand Pronunciation in Thailand,” Journal of International Business and Economics, 12 (5), 84-90.
    Despite the noted persuasive effects of fear appeals in public health campaigns, there are criticisms of the ethicality of such appeals because they may create unnecessary concerns among audiences. This study examines the perceived ethicality of strong and mild fear appeals and their effect on attitude toward the package, attitude toward the product, and intention to change behavior in the context of an antismoking campaign launched in Thailand. A between-subjects experimental design involving 205 Thai smokers was implemented to measure the effects of "strong" and "mild" graphic warning labels (GWL). Results indicate that the "strong" fear appeal is considered unethical, yet, effective in creating unfavorable attitudes toward the cigarette package and toward cigarettes. Interestingly, although the strong fear appeal prompted the highest intention to quit smoking, as compared to that stimulated by the mild fear appeal, intention to quit smoking is at a low absolute level.
  • Thoumrungroje, A. (2012), “A Cross-Vergence of Consumer Preferences: An Empirical Study of Ethnic Subgroups in Thailand,” Journal of International Business Research and Practice, 6, 37-48.
    Building on Bandura’s (2002) social cognitive theory and Phinney’s (1993) three-stage model of ethnic formation, this study explores the trends towards cross-vergence of consumers’ demand in the globalization era. The results from an exploratory factor analysis aiming to identify the underlying benefits that consumers of three different ethnic subgroups in Thailand have towards a non-ethnic consumer product confirms the cross-vergence thesis. Thus, both sociology and psychology literature complements each other in explaining both the convergence and divergence in consumers’ preferences nowadays. Finally, this paper advocates that an in-depth understanding of cultural dynamics is crucial for scholars to advance theories as well as for practitioners to properly address consumers’ needs.
  • Racela, O. C. & Thoumrungroje, A. (2012), “International Market Expansion of ‘Jintan Nude’ in Thailand,” Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, 2 (4), 1-17.
    Case Overview:
    Thai Jintan Company Limited (Thai Jintan) is a medium-sized importer, distributor, and marketer of premium confectionery and health care products in Thailand with the exclusive distribution arrangements of Morishita Jintan Company Limited (Morishita), one of Japan's oldest companies and a leader in the Japanese probiotic and confectionery industry. The case takes place in August 2009, approximately 18 months after Thai Jintan implemented its market launch of Morishita's technologically advanced breath and belly mint under the brand name of Jintan Nude. With a limited promotional budget of 8 million baht (161,128) coupled with Thailand's regulatory environment for the marketing of food and drugs, Thai Jintan, a newcomer to the breath mint market, was faced with having to devise a resourceful marketing and promotional campaign. Thai Jintan management was confronted with assessing its past marketing plan and deciding on what to do to achieve its ambitious goal of capturing a 20 percent market share of the growing mint/menthol candy confectionery segment in Thailand.

Year 2010

  • Theingi, Hla and Myat Mon (2010) "The Potential Contribution of Burmese Return Migrants in Burma’s Trade and Investment Liberalization Strategy: Burma in ASEAN'" paper presentation at the 2010 Asian Studies Association of Australia 18th Biennial Conference 5-8 July 2010, Adelaide, Australia
  • Thoumrungroje, A. (2010) “Institutional Drivers of Entrepreneurial Intentions in an Emerging Economy: An Empirical Investigation In Thailand,” Journal of International Business and Economics, 10 (2) 79-90.
    Despite a dramatic growth in entrepreneurship research in developed economies during the past two decades, there have been fewer studies focusing on emerging economies which recently have become major players in the global economic landscape. Furthermore, the recent political turmoil in Thailand has brought to the attention of several institutions in the country the agenda to foster entrepreneurship in the country as part of its economic reform in order to realize the expected target economic growth. Since entrepreneurial activities are contingent upon both cultural and institutional contexts, this article reviews related literature on the role of institutional environments in spurring entrepreneurial intentions, and empirically tests the relationships among institutional dimensions and the entrepreneurial intentions with a specific focus on Thailand. The results confirm the relationships as postulated by theory while inconsistent findings were found when the sample was split into subgroups based on certain demographic criteria. Implications for policy makers as well as theoretical contributions were discussed in the paper.
  • Racela, O. C. & Thoumrungroje, A. (2010) “A Comparative Study of Entrepreneurial Orientation, Information Technology Utilization, New Product Success and Firm Performance: The Case of US and Thai Firms,” Journal of International Business Strategy, 10 (3), 192-205.
    This study seeks to ascertain the extent to which the success of new product development (NPD) is related to the critical organizational innovation activities of entrepreneurship and IT utilization among firms of two different countries - the U.S. and Thailand. The interest here is in discovering if, and how, these relationships may be different between the two national culture groups of firms. Employing a survey questionnaire, data were obtained from a total sample of 159 strategic business units representing 12 different industries. Path analysis was applied to examine the hypothesized relationships among entrepreneurial orientation, IT utilization, two aspects of NPD success and firm performance. The results reveal several notable differences between the two groups of firms. First, for both groups, there is a significant positive relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and IT utilization, however, the relationship is stronger for the Thai group, contrary to what was initially expected. Second, for both groups, IT utilization does not have a relationship with NPD process effectiveness, however, for the U.S. group, IT utilization has a significant positive relationship with NPD product performance. Finally, for both groups of firms, NPD process effectiveness does not have a significant positive relationship with firm performance but NPD product performance does. Results, implications, recommendations for future research, and limitations are given.
  • Thoumrungroje, A. (2010) “The Effects of Entrepreneurial and Customer Orientations on Performance: The Mediating Role of Radical Product Innovation,” The Business Review, 15 (2), 138-143.
    This paper synthesizes the literature on marketing and entrepreneurship and investigates the relationships among entrepreneurial orientation, customer orientation, radical product innovation, and performance. It postulates the combination of the driving nature of entrepreneurial orientation and the driven characteristic of customer orientation to be total market orientation and it explores their indirect relationships with business performance. The author also presents a conceptual model together with the proposed relationships among the aforementioned constructs. Discussion and directions for future research are provided at the end.

Year 2011

  • Asvathitanont, Chayakrit (2011) 'Does firm with better corporate governance enjoy lower cost of capital? Case of Thai public companies' Paper presented in Global Conference on Business and Finance Research, Institute of Business and Finance Research, USA
    Theingi, Hla and Nan Sam Siri (2011) ‘Opportunities, Challenges and Preparations: Myanmar and Asean Economic Community: Proceeding of the 2011 International Conference on Economics, Business and Marketing Management 11-13 March 2011, Shainghai, China
  • Racela, O. C. & Thoumrungroje, A. “Organizational Learning, Marketing Strategic Change and Performance of Wholly-Owned and International Joint Ventures in Thailand.” Proceedings of The Institute for Business and Finance Research. Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A. December 2011.
    In an international joint venture (IJV), the extent to which learning and change take place may depend on the ownership structure of the organization. This exploratory study compares the levels of organizational learning and marketing strategic change and their relationships with firm performance between 100% Thai-owned firms, Thai-majority IJVs and Thai-minority IJVs in Thailand. Using data from a sample of 101 firms listed in the Japanese-Thai Chamber of Commerce, we find Thai-majority owned IJVs have the highest level of organizational learning whereas the levels of marketing strategic change are equally low among all three ownership structure types. Moreover, organizational learning and marketing strategic change relationships with marketing performance and financial performance vary between the three groups. Findings from this study provide support on the role of IJV ownership structure on strategy formulation, implementation and firm performance.
  • Vithessonthi, C. & Thoumrungroje, A. (2011) “Strategic Change and Firm Performance: The moderating effect of Organisational Learning,” Journal of Asia Business Studies, 5 (2) 194-210.
    Purpose – The primary purpose of this research is to review and discuss the potential associations among strategic change, organisational learning, and firm performance, and to propose a conceptual model to investigate such relationships.
    Design/methodology/approach – The literature on the strategic change-performance relationship was explored with the emphasis on elaborating the effects of frequency of strategic change on firm performance. In addition, a moderating role of organisational learning on such a relationship is introduced.
    Findings – From the literature review, it is proposed that the relationship between strategic change and firm performance is an inverted U-shape. Extremely frequent and infrequent strategic changes are deemed to be detrimental to firm performance. However, the research reveals that the strategic change-performance relationship may alter due to the moderation of organisational learning.
    Research limitations/implications – Given the conceptual nature of this paper, a review of relevant literature and a conceptual model are presented with suggestions for future empirical study. This paper also extends the strategic change-performance research by advocating an inverted U-shape relationship as one plausible explanation for inconsistent findings found in past literature.
    Practical implications – Managers should try to understand their organisations and implement an appropriate level of strategic change in order to maximise the firm's overall performance. In addition, a significant role of organisational learning in supporting firms to manoeuvre in today's increasingly dynamic and competitive environment is highlighted to managers.
    Originality/value – This paper attempts to explain: why firms might attain different levels of performance provided that they undergo various degrees of strategic change (in terms of frequency); and what factors contribute to the variations in organisational performance among firms that have undertaken the same number of strategic changes during a given period of time.

Year 2009

  • Kyaw, NyoNyo Aung and Hla Theingi (2009) “A Performance Analysis of Wholly Owned Subsidiaries and Joint Ventures: Electrical and Electronic Industry in Thailand”, International Journal of Business Studies, Vol.7 (1): 107-125
    Siriankul, Radha (2009) “The Process of New Product Development Knowledge Transfer from Parent Firms to Subsidiaries in the Host Country,” Proceedings of the 9th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Business, Hawaii, USA
  • Thoumrungroje, A. (2009) “Assessing Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy of Business Curriculum: A Multidimensional Scaling Approach.” Annual Hawaii International Conference on Business Proceedings. Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.
    Entrepreneurial self-efficacy is believed to enhance an individual’s entrepreneurial initiatives. Extant entrepreneurship literature indicates a strong entrepreneurial self-efficacy—intention relationship. One of the key factors aimed at building entrepreneurial self-efficacy is education. Hence, assessing the role of the business program in preparing students with skills and confidence in accomplishing new venture tasks is crucial to business and academic communities in order to ensure that the programs serve their underlying objectives. This study proposes a systematic, quantitative and comprehensive approach—thorough multidimensional scaling technique—to evaluate the extent to which business courses equip students with entrepreneurial self-efficacy. This methodology not only provides an in-depth understanding and evaluation of the curriculum, but also has paved a more comprehensive approach of evaluating the educational program that reflects the stakeholders’ perspectives. It is hoped that the proposed approach become a useful tool for educators and trainers to assess the congruence between expected and actual outcomes.
  • Poonpol, P. & Thoumrungroje, A. “Cultural Distance, Expatriate Performance and Subsidiary Performance: The Moderating Role of Organizational Culture Congruence and Cross-Cultural Training.” Proceedings of Academy of International Business (AIB) Southeast Asia Regional Conference. Hong Kong. December 2009.
    Increasing international expansion and globalization has led businesses to pay greater attention to cross-cultural management issues. Expatriate performance and subsidiary performance have always been interesting topics to explore. Therefore, this paper proposes a model to enhance performance of expatriate and multinational enterprises by incorporating cross-cultural training and organizational culture congruence as moderating variables that will converge cultural distance between host and home countries. Such convergence aims to facilitate cultural adjustments of expatriate managers and will eventually lead to the enhancement of a subsidiary performance. A review of related literature in cross-cultural management, expatriate performance and subsidiaries performance is presented with a set of proposed relationships.
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